In summary, in the field of feedwater heating, there have been a number of changes in recent years but these have been of an evolutionary, not a revolutionary, nature. The first two stages of LP feedheating are incorporated in the 'neck' of the condenser, with the external LP stages being arranged in a horizontal attitude below the LP turbines.
Combined de-aerating/feedheating plant is now of the 'steam-injection' type and more compact than hitherto. HP feedwater heaters are arranged in a horizontal attitude below the turbine cylinders. The feedwater is now raised to a higher temperature by the extraction of steam from the HP cylinder. For large capacity plants the use of 'header' type heaters may permit space and cost savings to be made which, in conjunction with improvements in other plant areas and increased unit rating, serve to reduce capital and operating costs and are therefore beneficial to the consumers.