Modern Energetics
Chapter 3


Feedwater heating systems

 

1  Feed system design

   1.1  Introduction

   1.2  Functional needs of the system

   1.3  System configuration

   1.4  Component design parameters

   1.5  Component levels

   1.6  Maintenance of system water content

   1.7  Protection against use of contaminated feedwater

   1.8  Protection against ingress of water/steam to turbines

   1.9  Summary

 

2  HP feed system

   2.1  Introduction

   2.2  System parameters

   2.3  System configuration part 1 ...2 ...3

   2.4  HP heater drains system

   2.5  Pipework arrangement

 

3  De-aerator system

   3.1  Introduction

   3.2  De-aerator heater

   3.3  De-aerator storage tank

   3.4  De-aerator elevation

   3.5  Protection systems

   3.6  Protection valves

   3.7  Pipework

   3.8  Boiler feed pump suction filters

 

4  Low pressure feed system

   4.1  Introduction

   4.2  Low pressure system configuration part 1 ...2 ...3 ...4

   4.3  Pipework and valves

 

5  Designs of feedheaters

 

6  High pressure feedwater heaters

   6.1  Functional needs

   6.2  Construction of high pressure heaters

   6.3  Water header, tube bundle and shell

      6.3.1  To find tube thickness

      6.3.2  Area required for flow through the tube bundle

      6.3.3  Tubeplate thickness

      6.3.4  Water header wall thickness

      6.3.5  Header branch thickness

      6.3.6  Compensation for openings in the water header

      6.3.7  Shell and dished end thickness

   6.4  Heater tube length and tube supports

      6.4.1  Length of U-tubes

      6.4.2  Tube support plates

   6.5  Bled-steam inlet

   6.6  Thermal design

      6.6.1  Desuperheating section

      6.6.2  Condensing section

      6.6.3  Drain cooling section

      6.6.4  Other factors affecting thermal design

   6.7  Horizontal high pressure heaters

   6.8  Vertical high pressure heaters

   6.9  Alternative designs of heater construction

 

7  De-aerating feedheaters

   7.1  Introduction

   7.2  Thermal/hydraulic design part 1 ...2

   7.3  De-aerator construction

 

8  Low pressure heaters

   8.1  Introduction

   8.2  Surface type low pressure heaters

   8.3  Construction of low pressure heaters

   8.4  Water header, tube bundle and shell

      8.4.1  Tube thickness

      8.4.2  Flow area

      8.4.3  Tubeplate thickness

      8.4.4  Water header wall thickness

      8.4.5  Water header branch thickness

      8.4.6  Compensations for openings in the waterbox

      8.4.7  Shell and dished end thickness

   8.5  Heater tube length and tube supports

      8.5.1  Tube support plates

   8.6  Bled-steam inlets and drain outlets

   8.7  Thermal design

   8.8  External drain coolers

      8.8.1  Thermal/hydraulic design of a flashing drain cooler

      8.8.2  Thermal/hydraulic design of a water-to-water drain cooler

   8.9  Direct contact low pressure heaters

 

9  Evaporators and other means of water treatment

   9.1  Introduction

   9.2  Types of bled-steam evaporator

   9.3  Surface type evaporator

   9.4  Flash type evaporators

 

10  Future developments

   10.1  HP feed system

   10.2  De-aerator system

   10.3  LP feed system

 

11  References