7  Operational life limiting constraints

 

The main constraints which limit the operational life of a condenser are summarised under the following headings:

  • Condenser air inleakage.
  • Cooling water inleakage.
  • Condenser fouling and cleaning.

An awareness of these problems at the design stage can significantly reduce lifetime running costs and maintenance costs. Operational experience of the various techniques employed for each of the three constraints listed are now discussed.

   7.1  Condenser air inleakage

      7.1.1  Locating air leaks

      7.1.2  Measurement of air leakage rate

   7.2  Cooling water leakage in condensers

      7.2.1  Fluorescein method

      7.2.2  Foam or film methods

      7.2.3  Bubbler devices

      7.2.4  Tracer gas methods

      7.2.5  Flame and smoke methods

      7.2.6  Ultrasonic method

   7.3  Condenser fouling and cleaning

      7.3.1  Condenser fouling

      7.3.2  On-load condenser cleaning

      7.3.3  Off-load condenser cleaning

 

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