Modern Energetics
Chapter 4


Condensers, pumps and cooling water

 

CONDENSERS

1  Introduction

2  Economics

   2.1  Condenser surface area, turbine exhaust pressure and CW flow

      2.1.1  Input data

      2.1.2  Computation

3  Historical development and layout

   3.1  Phase 1

   3.2  Phase 2

   3.3  Phase 3

4  Environmental considerations

   4.1  Cooling water quality

      4.1.1  Corrosion prevention part 1 ...2

      4.1.2  Other copper-alloy tube failure mechanisms part 1 ...2

      4.1.3  Material selection part 1 ...2

5  Thermal design

   5.1  Theory

      5.1.1  Heat rejected

      5.1.2  Heat transfer

   5.2  Design codes, standards and specifications

      5.2.1  HEI Standards

      5.2.2  BEAMA design recommendations

      5.2.3  CEGB specifications

   5.3  Influence of tubeplate and tubenest geometry on thermal performance

      5.3.1  Subjective design evaluation part 1 ...2 ...3 ...4 ...5

      5.3.2  Computer assisted design evaluation

6  Mechanical design

   6.1  Introduction

   6.2  Constructional development

      6.2.1  Construction materials

      6.2.2  Design forces and stresses

      6.2.3  Methods of manufacture and construction part 1 ...2 ...3 ...4 ...5 ...6 ...7

   6.3  Protection and cleanliness of condensers

      6.3.1  Debris filter

      6.3.2  Condenser tube cleaning system

   6.4  Special considerations

7  Operational life limiting constraints

   7.1  Condenser air inleakage

      7.1.1  Locating air leaks

      7.1.2  Measurement of air leakage rate

   7.2  Cooling water leakage in condensers

      7.2.1  Fluorescein method

      7.2.2  Foam or film methods

      7.2.3  Bubbler devices

      7.2.4  Tracer gas methods

      7.2.5  Flame and smoke methods

      7.2.6  Ultrasonic method

   7.3  Condenser fouling and cleaning

      7.3.1  Condenser fouling

      7.3.2  On-load condenser cleaning

      7.3.3  Off-load condenser cleaning

8  Plant testing

   8.1  Introduction

      8.1.1  Test codes and practices part 1 ...2 ...3

9  Future developments

   9.1  Aims and objectives

   9.2  Research and development

      9.2.1  Tubenest layout

      9.2.2  Thermal performance properties of tubing

 

PUMPS

10  Air extraction equipment

   10.1  Introduction

   10.2  Determination of air extraction quantity

      10.2.1  The mechanism of air extraction

      10.2.2  The condenser air cooling section

   10.3  Review of air extraction equipment

      10.3.1  Hydraulic air pumps

      10.3.2  Liquid-ring type air pump

      10.3.3  Air ejector/pump systems

      10.3.4  Steam ejector/pump systems

   10.4  Quick-start plant requirements

      10.4.1  Type of plant

      10.4.2  Starting times

11  Hydraulic aspects of centrifugal pumps

   11.1  Specific speed

   11.2  Net positive suction head

   11.3  Suction specific speed

12  Circulating water pumps

   12.1  Introduction

   12.2  Horizontal split-casing pumps

   12.3  Vertical pumps

      12.3.1  Vertical metal-casing pumps

      12.3.2  Concrete volute pumps

   12.4  Gearboxes

   12.5  Shaft seals

   12.6  Pump testing

   12.7  Materials

13  Condenser extraction pumps part 1 ...2

14  Boiler feed pumps

   14.1  Introduction

   14.2  Feed pump developments

   14.3  Advanced class feed pump construction

   14.4  Axial thrust

   14.5  Gland sealing part 1 ...2

   14.6  Pump layout and drive part 1 ...2

   14.7  Light load protection

   14.8  Testing

   14.9  PWR feed pumpsets

   14.10  Future trends

15  Miscellaneous pumps

   15.1  Service water pumps

   15.2  Chemical injection pumps

   15.3  Fire pumps

16  References